Distinguish between inner and outer packaging. Inner packaging is the primary container in which goods are placed at the place of production. Inner packagings include packages, boxes, bottles, cases, cans, etc., Inner packs soften possible impacts during transportation, prevent ingress of moisture, dust, and odors. For tourist transfers, private hotels, hotels and clubs use the inner packaging.
Inner packaging is strengthened in the exterior with the help of packaging materials and, if necessary, spacers. Foil, shavings, sawdust, fibrous waste, cotton wool, foam rubber, and various types of paper — waxed, waterproof, wrapping, parchment, etc. — are used as packaging materials. To absorb shock and vibration loads that occur during transportation, shock absorbing pads from polyfoam, corrugated cardboard, wooden and plastic liners.
Outer packaging shall ensure the complete safety of inner packaging and cargo. The type of outer packaging is chosen in accordance with the physico-chemical properties of the cargo, the characteristics of the inner packaging and the conditions of transportation.
The most important sign of outer packaging is its rigidity. From this point of view, the container is divided into rigid, semi-rigid and soft.
Containers that do not lose their shape , during transportation and storage, can withstand the pressure of the material packed in it, the top layer of the cargo, as well as the mechanical loads that occur during transportation and handling operations, are tough. This type includes metal, plastic and wooden packaging.
Semi-rigid packaging is different from the rigid. that is capable of deforming under load, but is sufficiently resistant to protect the load from damage. Semi-rigid packaging retains its shape while being empty, without being compressed. This package includes a large part of cardboard and wicker packaging.
Soft packaging does not protect the cargo placed in it from mechanical impact and is used to create the best conditions for the transportation of bulk cargo. Soft containers include bags, coolies, bast-plates, etc.
By the type of materials used in manufacturing, packaging is subdivided into wood, cardboard, paper, plastic packaging, metal, textile, glass, ceramic, combined, etc.
Wooden packaging makes up about 70% of all types of packaging and is used in the form of boxes, barrels, gratings, drums, coils, etc. The disadvantages of wooden packaging include a large own weight and significant costs for its manufacture.
Cardboard and paper packaging is made from sheet, extruded, glued and corrugated cardboard and paper. Cardboard packaging is used in the form of various boxes, drums and trays, paper - in the form of bags. Cardboard and paper packaging in comparison with wooden is more economical and surpasses it in some technical and economic indicators. At present, mastered the production of containerboard with high physico-mechanical properties and low weight.
Polymer and combined packaging is made from polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polypropylene and other materials and is used in the form of boxes, barrels, jerry cans, bottles, bags, etc. Tara made of polymeric materials has several advantages over glass, metal and wood. The relative weight (the ratio of the own weight of the container to the mass of the product to be packaged) of a plastic container is 0.5–2%, while that of wood is 15–20%. Polymeric materials ensure the tightness of the packaging and reduce the cost of packaging and packaging.
Metal packaging is used for packaging materials that have the ability to spontaneously ignite, a high degree of volatility (gases, calcium carbide, etc.), as well as destructive ones acting on non-metallic containers (vegetable oils, paints and varnishes, etc.). The main types of metal containers include barrels, cylinders, boxes, drums, cans, cans, boxes, etc. Metal containers have great mechanical strength, impermeability, water resistance. However, its production is time consuming and expensive. In the overall balance of transport packaging, it takes about 6%.
Textile packaging is made from various fabrics: linen, semi-linen, linen, jute, hempen, cotton, combined, etc. Jute and linen bags are most common in maritime transport.
Glass and ceramic containers are used mainly in the form of bottles, cans, cans, bottles. Most types of glass containers belong to the inner container, but are used repeatedly.
The combined container finds more and more distribution recently, as the combination of various materials (for example, plastic with a tree, a tree with metal) gives the types of a container, most durable, strong and convenient for transportation and storage. The main types of combined containers include small and special containers, folding tanks, wooden box and more.